Further configuring MirrorBrain¶
This chapter contains notes about important extra things that you may want to configure, and also some more exotic configurations.
For basic configuration, please refer to the installation section (Initial configuration steps on all platforms).
From the hashes generated with mb makehashes, MirrorBrain can generate not only Metalinks, but also Torrents. The required chunked hashes are the same.
The generation is triggered by appending
.torrent to an URL.
The torrents have the following properties:
They include (a selection of closest) mirror URLs, for web seeding. They are included both in a
url-listfield as well as a
sourcesfield. Only a selection of mirrors is included, because there is a chance that some clients will just pick a random mirror from the list. Thus, only the mirrors that are closest to a client are included.
Some clients (at least the original BitTorrent client) can have difficulties to grok modern fields that they do not know. (They might error out and claim invalid bencoding, for instance.) Putting some keys behind, not before, the info dictionary seems to help. Therefore,
sourcesare included at the end.
A DHT “nodes” list is included in Torrents (see issue 49). It needs to be configured with the
MirrorBrainDHTNodeApache configuration directive.
They include the MD5, SHA1 and SHA256 hash into the info dictionary.
If a torrent is requested, but data needed for it is missing, a 404 is returned.
Multiple trackers can be included. See below.
The BitTorrent Info Hash (
btih), which uniquely identifies a torrent (by an SHA1 hash over the bencoded
infodict) is shown in the mirror list (metadata view). The info hash can also be requested separately from the server by appending
.btihto an URL.
Hashes that require Base32 encoding are currently not included. Base32 encoding could be added, of course, if somebody is willing to do this.
The piece length is configurable by a parameter in
/etc/mirrorbrain.conf. The default is
chunk_size = 262144 bytes
mb.hashes). The size has a direct relation to the space that the
hashes occupy in the database. To find out how much it is, the mb db
sizes command can be helpful. Note the size of the
If space is of utter concern, generation of chunked hashes by can be switched off
chunked_hashes = 0 in
/etc/mirrorbrain.conf. This effectively
disables generation of torrents. (Metalinks will still be generated, they’ll
just not contain piece-wise hashes.)
Parameters need to go into the mb instance section, not into the
There are the following Apache configuration directives to configure the torrents. Both go into a virtualhost context, and not inside a directory context.
Defines the URL a BitTorrent Tracker to be included in Torrents and in Magnet links. The directive can be repeated to specify multiple URLs. Here’s an example:
MirrorBrainTorrentTrackerURL "http://bt.mirrorbrain.org:8091/announce" MirrorBrainTorrentTrackerURL "udp://bt.mirrorbrain.org:8091/announce"
The first URL is put into the
announcekey. All URLs will be listed in the
Defines a DHT node to be included in Torrents links. The directive can be repeated to specify multiple nodes, and takes two arguments (hostname, port). Example:
MirrorBrainDHTNode router.bittorrent.com 6881 MirrorBrainDHTNode router.utorrent.com 6881
Registering with a tracker¶
Most trackers require registration of the torrents, or they refuse to deal with them. Unless you use a tracker that allows access to unregistered torrents, you will have to take care of the registration.
At the moment, this means downloading the torrents from MirrorBrain and doing this somehow. Or using an open tracker.
In the future, it is planned that MirrorBrain writes copies of the torrents to the file system, so they can easily be rsynced to somewhere else, where the registering process runs.
Configuring zsync support¶
The zsync distribution method resembles rsync over HTTP, so to speak, and is a very bandwidth-efficient way to synchronize changed individual files; at the same time, it is very scalable, because the main work is not done at the server (as with rsync), but distributed to the clients.
Normally, zsync metadata needs to be generated manually and saved in form of .zsync files next to the real files.
MirrorBrain however has support for generating the required checksums, and
can then serve the zsync files generated on-the-fly. The generation is
triggered by appending
.zsync to an URL.
The supported method reflects the “simpler” zsync variant, which doesn’t look into compressed content. It is compatible to, and was tested with, the current zsync release (0.6.2). 0.6.1 worked as well.
If mirrors are available for a file, MirrorBrain adds them into the zsync as URLs where missing data can be downloaded. zsync (0.6.1) requires real mirrors as URLs, not one URL that redirects to mirrors. It is noteworthy in this context that zsync client (as of 0.6.1) tries the provided URLs in random order. Thus, the sent URLs are restricted to the ones that are closest. Thereby, the zsync client will use more nearby mirrors to download data from.
If no mirrors are available, a valid zsync is still generated. The content will then be delivered directly by MirrorBrain.
This feature is off by default, because Apache can allocate large amounts of memory when retrieving very large rows from database (and keeps it). This may or may not affect you; and it may be worked around in the future. (The amount of memory that Apache allocates is about twice the size of the largest zsync, so in the end it depends on the file sizes.)
To activate zsync support, you need to switch on the generation of the special
zsync checksums. That is done like shown below in the MirrorBrain instance
[general] # not here! [your mb instance] dbuser = ... ... zsync_hashes = 1
This will cause mb makehashes generate the zsync checksums and store them into the database. See Creating hashes for more info on this tool. This tool needs to be run periodically, or after known changes in the file tree, to update the checksums.
For the fastest possible checksumming, the algorithm is implemented in C (zsync’s own “rsum” checksum) and integrated via a C Python extension.
The checksums occupy space in the database. To find out how much it is, the
mb db sizes command can be helpful. Note the size of the
Serving Yum-style mirror lists¶
Yum has a way to request a plain-text list of mirrors from a server. This is useful because it can then has a number of mirrors available as fallbacks, or can test which one works fastest for it. Traditionally, Yum is configured with a URL containing passing a few query arguments to select the appropriate repository. For example, the communication with the server could look like this:
request: http://centos.mirrorbrain.org/?release=5.5&arch=x86_64&repo=os reply from server: http://ftp.uni-bayreuth.de/linux/CentOS/5.5/os/x86_64/ http://ftp.hosteurope.de/mirror/centos.org/5.5/os/x86_64/ http://mirror.sov.uk.goscomb.net/centos/5.5/os/x86_64/
MirrorBrain has support to answer these queries in a meaningful way. The returned list of mirrors will be sorted by suitability for the client – with the full-blown selection algorithm being applied. 10 mirrors will be returned (that could be made configurable, if need be).
The Apache config directive
MirrorBrainYumDir is used to map the various
possible query arguments to actual directories. Below these directories,
MirrorBrain checks if a certain file present. Only mirrors that list that
marker file will turn up in the mirror list.
The syntax of the directive is:
MirrorBrainYumDir <arg>=<regexp> [<arg>=<regexp> ...] <basedir> <mandatory_file>
Here, the meaning of the arguments is:
One ore more keys that the client uses in the query. The order in these are given does not matter.
This is a regular expression against the values are matched which Yum sends. You are free to use a simple string here, like
updates, or a regular expression that catches several things.
These regular expressions are forced to be anchored to start and end, for security reasons.
When you use strings like
10.0, remember that the dot is a magic in regular expressions (matching any character), so you should escape it with a backslash (see examples below).
See the next section for a discussion of security implications.
This is the directory that corresponds to the specified query arguments. Its path is given relative to the top of the file tree. At the same time, this is the path on the mirror servers, relative to the base URL of their mirror.
Since there can be a need for many different, but similar mappings, there is a way to automatically insert values from the query into this path. Any
$9specified in the
subdirstring will be replaced with the respective value.
$2is replaced with the second
argvalue defined here. (Not with the second argument that yum passes in. That would make no sense – since the order in which it places the values is not specified.)
It is not necessary to put
()braces around the regexps, to declare them as a “match group”. Every regexp is a match group.
This is a file that needs to exist in the specified subdirectory on the mirrors. Again, its path is given relative.
Here’s an example with two similar mappings:
MirrorBrainYumDir release=5\.5 repo=os arch=i586 5.5/os/i386 repodata/repomd.xml MirrorBrainYumDir release=4\.8 repo=os arch=i586 4.8/os/i386 repodata/repomd.xml
If the client requests
?release=4.8&arch=i586&repo=os, the second rule will
match. MirrorBrain will create a list of all mirrors that are known to have the
4.8/os/i386/repodata/repomd.xml, and send the 10 best of these mirrors to
the client. The mirror URLs will have the
subdir appended as appropriate.
Here is a more complex (but not contrived) example which demonstrates how a multitude of cases can be handled with a single rule:
MirrorBrainYumDir release=(4|4\.8|5|5\.5) repo=(os|updates|extra) arch=i586 $1/$2/i386 repodata/repomd.xml
If the client sends
?repo=extra&release=5, the directory becomes
5/extra/i386, and so on.
Things you should note:
Symlinks are automatically handled. Remember that symlinks on mirrors are invisible when scanning is done only via HTTP. To avoid having multiple trees in your database, you should make sure that only “real” directories are scanned via
/etc/mirrorbrain.conf. MirrorBrain canonicalizes all paths in the local filesystem before doing a lookup in the database. Therefore, it doesn’t matter if the query arguments are in fact resolving to a symlink to a file tree.
If no mirror is found in the database, any mirror configured via
MirrorBrainFallbackis considered. If none of the latter is configured, MirrorBrain at least returns its own URL, which, after all, will give the client a working download, so it should be better than nothing.
The client needs to specify all arguments defined in a MirrorBrainYumDir, and all must match.
Security considerations are discussed in the following section.
Because MirrorBrain uses strings that are passed in from clients, which could potentially be malicious, these are handled with care.
The normal resource limits of request processing in Apache apply. There is no special sanitizing for ‘/../’ elements in the path.
Such arguments are accepted if the regular expression leaves room for that – for instance, if it contains wildcards as
In any case, the resulting path is canonicalized in the local file system. It is assumed that this cannot have bad effects. The most that an attacker can achieve is that a path is canonicalized to an existing file on the server. For Apache, this will mean that it (debug-) logs something like:
Error canonicalizing filename '/srv/nullmirrors/centos/5/os/x86_64/../../../../../../etc//repodata/repomd.xml'
Canonicalization still fails because the file checked is always the one specified by the admin. Even if the canonicalization would accidentally work, no information about the file, or even about the success or failure, would be returned to the client.
Any error in canonicalization will stop processing of the request. Success (let’s assume it is possible) will result in the path being used in a database SQL query, asking for mirrors that have the file, which is highly unlikely. The SQL argument is passed to the database via a prepared statement with bound parameters, so there is no chance for SQL injection attacks.
(And all Apache logging undergoes escaping, excluding viewing logs etc. as attack vector.)
Still, it seems prudent to recommend to downright avoid the issue by using more specific regular expressions that accept only what you want.
Styling the mirrorlist / details pages¶
MirrorBrain generates per-file pages with all known metadata and a list of
mirrors. This is triggered by appending
?mirrorlist to a
request. The pages are delivered with character set UTF-8 in the Content-type
The content of these pages are wrapped into a XHTML/HTML
DIV container with
id="mirrorbrain-details". This gives a means for styling in conjunction
with a stylesheet linked in via the
Apache config directive.
MirrorBrainMirrorlistStyleSheet goes into
virtualhost context and takes an URL, which can be relative or absolute.
Either of the following would work:
MirrorBrainMirrorlistStyleSheet "http://www.poeml.de/~poeml/mirrorbrain.css" MirrorBrainMirrorlistStyleSheet "/mirrorbrain.css"
Further, arbitrary design can be achieved by specifying the XHTML/HTML header and footer which are placed around the page body instead of the built-in XHTML. This is configured with the following two Apache configuration directives, which go into virtualhost context:
# Absolute path to header to be included at the top MirrorBrainMirrorlistHeader /srv/www/htdocs/mb-header.html # Absolute path to footer to be appended MirrorBrainMirrorlistFooter /srv/www/htdocs/mb-footer.html
Configuring URL signatures¶
Signing URLs can be a way to protect content from unauthorized access. How does this work?
The redirector can generate redirection URLs that contain a signature with temporary validity. The signature can be checked on the mirror servers to restrict access to authenticated clients. This means that authentication and authorization of clients can be validated centrally (by the redirector), and the content on all mirrors protected.
To configure URL signing, the server needs to be configured with a secret key:
In this example,
my_key is an arbitrary string known only to the server
administrators (including the mirror servers).
The directive may be used server-wide, or applied to certain directories.
It makes sense to combine this with setting up authentication to restrict access. When clients access the server and are authorized to access the file, and the server decides to redirect the request, the result is as demonstrated in the following example:
# curl -sI http://192.168.0.117/extended/3.2.0rc5/OOo_3.2.0rc5_20100203_LinuxIntel_install_ar.tar.gz HTTP/1.1 302 Found [...] http://ftp.udc.es/OpenOffice/extended/3.2.0rc5/OOo_3.2.0rc5_20100203_LinuxIntel_install_ar.tar.gz?time=1288879347&stamp=e215bb55bbea2c133145330f9e061f5b
Note the two arguments that are appended to the URL in the Location header.
The mirrors which receives these requests need to check two things:
Check if the “ticket” is a valid one, by hashing the timestamp and the shared secret – here in shell code:
# echo -n '1288879347 my_key' | md5sum e215bb55bbea2c133145330f9e061f5b -
That hash is the same as came with the URL, and thus the ticket is valid (or was valid in the past).
Check if the “ticket” is still fresh enough, simply by comparing to current time. Shell example:
# echo $(( $(date +'%s') - 1288879347 )) 380
While I was typing, the ticked became 380 seconds old (because I’m slow :-), which makes it outdated, and the mirror would reject it, based on the policy that it must not be older than e.g. 30 seconds.
These two checks to be done on the mirrors can easily be destilled in a script consisting of only a few lines.
The fact that MD5 collisions can be found nowadays should be pretty irrelevant considering the short-lived-ness of the tickets. That’s one reason why the mirrors should check for the age. The other reason is because it allows using a one-way, non-revertible hash, instead of a symmetric encryption which would be less trivial to implement (md5 is available anywhere, while symmetric ciphers are not).
Using mod_mirrorbrain without GeoIP¶
mod_mirrorbrain can be used without GeoIP. This could happen in (at least) two ways:
Let’s assume that GeoIP cannot be used: this would be the case if the traffic to be redirected is in an intranet.
Country information that mod_mirrorbrain uses to select mirrors can be faked with the standard Apache module mod_setenvif as in the following example:
SetEnvIf Remote_Addr ^10\.10\.* GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE=us SetEnvIf Remote_Addr ^10\.10\.* GEOIP_CONTINENT_CODE=na SetEnvIf Remote_Addr ^192\.168\.2\.* GEOIP_COUNTRY_CODE=de SetEnvIf Remote_Addr ^192\.168\.2\.* GEOIP_CONTINENT_CODE=eu
SetEnvIfdirective sets two variables for each client per its network address. Thus, you can configure your mirrors in the database to reflect those countries. You could make up pseudo country codes, if needed.
Based on this information, mod_mirrorbrain will chose an appropriate server.
Let’s assume that a simple round-robin distribution of requests is sufficient. This would be the case if the clients are all located in the same network or country. There is nothing to configure for this.
In such a scenario, mod_mirrorbrain will farm out the requests to all the available mirrors by random. It will still do this according to the preference of each mirror, and according to availability of the requested files on each mirror. Mirror selection criteria as the online status of each mirror will still apply.
Thus, this solution is more powerful than simple DNS-based round robin, or random request distribution via mod_rewrite. (Of course, contrary to those other solutions, it requires tracking the mirrors’ status and contents.)